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Also, with many species going extinct in the industrial age and many more threatened with extinction to the extent that there soon became an official list 16 , conservation won out with the same elements of preservation. Many people today believe there is a need for action on a range of conservation issues to ensure biodiversity while not damaging the economy of resources for the future. In all the debate about conservation of natural landscapes, we must not forget that the 19 th century also saw the development of interest in the cultural past.

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Although archaeology was around years old at this point, at least in the Old World, it was largely an exercise in treasure hunting - digging up the treasures of the past as curiosities for museums or for the private collections of those who funded the dig. Changes in attitudes and law throughout the 19 th century meant that monuments and artefacts were becoming part of the study of the past, no longer merely trinkets and curiosities, but indicators of a culture's development and identity. Modern archaeology would not arrive until the 20 th century 17 and the concept of an archaeological landscape is younger still.

The first laws to protect and conserve cultural heritage came into place in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries in the developed countries. This law was in place until when it was replaced with the Archaeological Resources Protection Act but several other laws came into place before then that required archaeologists to label and give proper contexts to monuments and artefacts. There was also a global movement to protect by law and provide resources and funds for monuments that were nationally important, but also those deemed significant to human civilization as a whole.

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The list began in as a recognition of globally important sites. Today, there are over 1, cultural monuments and natural landscapes on this list.

Cultural Heritage: Conservation and Rural Regeneration

In the 21 st century, it is common for countries to have laws in place to protect monuments, sites, and landscapes of cultural or historical importance and government-established charities or government departments assigned to their management, upkeep or conservation. The threats to them and their conservation go beyond the issues of the 19 th century plunder and theft.

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See the section on conservation areas of concern for the future for further details. One aspect of particular note and a niche area of archaeological curiosity is the study of how and why past societies collapsed. His studies take him all over the world as he examines the archaeological data for long-departed cultures. Often, evidence suggests that past societies engaged in what might be considered exercises damaging to their culture such as environmental malpractice and overexploitation of resources.

Diamond perceives that that is exactly what happened to the people of Easter Island 20 , although his suggestion that they cut down trees to build the stone heads is not the only theory. Others have suggested that invasive rat species brought aboard their rafts travelling across the Pacific also contributed to the tree canopy's decline and ecological damage. Diamond considers five main reasons why societies fall:. Works about the collapse of such societies stand as a warning to consider conservation as a vital part of maintaining resources. It is as much about conserving an ecosystem as it is about protecting the income of vulnerable communities, for example where laws are in place to restrict fishing rights and prevent overfishing.

Buildings and complexes, and urban development are an essential part of the historic built environment, an expansion from traditional archaeology which used to focus on derelict buildings and monuments of historic importance. Architectural conservation is the intervention to stop the degradation of historic structures - either in use or derelict, that are subject to protections for their historical significance for future generations to enjoy.

Buildings are often subject to problems because they were not designed with permanence in mind, even those built to last. The longer they are standing, the more important they become and the more likely they are to experience problems, the higher the risk factor to their survival. The aim is to prolong a building's life for as long as possible and maintain the integrity of the building's fabric. This is the science of protecting biodiversity and managing an ecosystem to ensure its integrity.

It aims to protect individual species especially where they are threatened or endangered or at risk from invasive species , the habitats in which they reside and maintaining the status quo of an environment. It focuses on all biological life within a biome and seeks to promote normal interactions. It's a relatively young area, arriving in the late s when it was becoming clear that industrial actions were affecting microclimates and delicate habitats and damaging biodiversity.

This is more of a philosophy that underpins many of conservation's theories and practices. Simply, it is an explanation of standards of ethics in the protection of species, natural resources, land, cultural assets, and in their use and management Although most sciences have ethics and code of conduct to do as little harm as possible and ensure maximum benefit may be extracted from such actions, few are so intertwined with an ethical approach so deeply ingrained.

Economics is a vital link in any political system as there is a need to provide employment and funding for public services and investment and to ensure markets function. Conservation Economics applies economic models to understand the relative costs and financial benefits of everything related to conservation - laws, protections, limits on resource acquisition and so on. It also looks at the economic benefits of setting aside conservation lands such as tourism and the health benefits. With such models, progress and conservation are not in opposition or a battle of wits, but complementary with both seeing the other as vital in their systems Similar to conservation economics, this is the subdivision of conservation that looks to raise money such as venture capital for environmental projects like water and food security and natural resources, setting aside land as conservation spaces, and developing their financial sustainability through non-profit or by promoting sustainable tourism.

It can also include setting up funds, grants, and bursaries to allocate to such projects. Businesses often do this to support environmental credentials as philanthropic activities. Conservation is often as much a biological issue as anything else. While conservation biology is about maintaining the integrity of an ecosystem, conservation genetics concerns the genetic diversity of a certain species.

It is integral to breeding programs that zoos and conservation parks now actively engage in as part of their efforts to avoid species extinction.

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It uses all the tools, techniques, and knowledge of genetics to select breeding pairs and to ensure genetic diversity amongst threatened and endangered species. Often, it is the most important and sometimes the only way to ensure genetic biodiversity. It defines areas of protecting and how they are to be protected, including the punishments for infringements or non-compliance. Typically, environmental laws are put in place to protect public health and safety and to avoid the loss or damage of a natural resource. Some may call this conservationism. It is not technically a subcategory of the science of conservation.

Instead, it is a political or social movement for and by the public, usually involving non-profits and small groups actively seeking environmental protection at a local or global level. Their interests are broad and demands such things as protection of our natural resources and full accountability for those who break the law, special protections for biodiversity and habitat protection, legislation and adequate funding to enforce the illegal pet trade in endangered species, and activism that seeks to change laws with a view for conservation, clean energy, ecology, and the protection of cultural assets.

This is one of the most important issues of our time. We live in an age of dwindling fossil fuels and inaction on renewable energy. That's one aspect of energy conservation - efficiency of the resource.

Conservation and restoration of cultural heritage

The second aspect is making our electrical devices, vehicles, buildings and so on far more energy efficient. Great inroads have already been made in reducing the amount of energy consumed in lighting, replacing many conventional bulbs with LEDs 24 and power cells that are far more efficient for our smartphones and computing devices than ever before. Habitat conservation is the process of effective land management for landscapes, ecologies, and small tracts of land to protect it from harm such as human activity , manage it effectively for resource security, and restore habitat to encourage biodiversity or to mitigate problems putting endangered or protected species at risk.

This can apply equally to individual plant or animal species or be a general attempt to conserve the balance of an ecosystem. This can also include the removal of invasive species. They are vital for life and home to thousands of species. It's a natural resource and an economic one; many problems blight our oceans today, not least of all overfishing and the dumping of waste. Marine conservation looks at ways of preserving the oceans as ecosystems for the species that rely on them and focuses on laws for protection and management of such ecosystems.

It interlinks with many other areas, particularly oceanography and marine biology. Related to conservation science which is the study of artefacts and artistic and ethnographic pieces to understand how they are put together to extend its life, object conservation is the applied science of conserving such items. It is less about the study of the how or why, and more about simply ensuring its continued existence for future generations to enjoy or maintain its integrity as a cultural icon.

It will use archaeological data and studies by conservation scientists in ensuring that the art piece, artefact, or ethnographic item continues to be protected via the best methods presently possible. Object conservation typically includes modern objects or interest whereas archaeological conservation concerns much older artifacts.

However, it also seeks to examine how such artifacts and art may have been put together and seek to understand how they were put together.


While aspects of archaeology seek to do this purely for the understanding of the technique, conservation science does so to understand the methods and process, to maintain the authenticity and integrity of a piece in restoration and conservation by using the same or similar methods and materials, and to examine materials that may be causing deterioration, and where necessary, use new materials to ensure its long-term survival. Learn more about conversation planning careers. Most conservation programs are reactive - happening after the fact to restore something to an original state or taking measures to mitigate further degradation.

But preventive conservation anticipates potential problems and does something about them before they become an issue of major concern. With broad applications in agriculture , disaster prevention and for ecology, soil conservation concerns maintaining or restoring the integrity of ground soil. Experts in this field with examine ways of engaging in soil management to prevent erosion or depletion of nutrients and work to remove contamination during toxic spillages.

It is as much about ecological health as public health, and often as part of an insurance claim when there is lost income for example, industrial spillage on or near agricultural land that could damage a farmer's income or lead to crop contamination. Intensive agriculture is a fact of modern life; while this concerns pollution, the biggest contributor to soil nutrient depletion is overuse.

Other issues concern removal of tree cover in tropical zones that without adequate infrastructure will lead to flooding and nutrient loss. Learn more about soil conservation technician careers. Water security is a growing problem with a growing population and with both flooding and drought now common in some parts of the world, there are few areas of conservation considered more important than this. Simply, it is the management of fresh water supply. This is a sustainable resource but is often overused. Water security is also important to crop growth and maintaining food security as fodder for cattle and our own food supply. Learn about water conservationist careers. Wetlands such as swamps, tidal marshes and river floodplains are an important and broad source of biodiversity and home to rare, endangered, and threatened species. Many overwintering species use the wetlands of the world temporarily or as permanent homes.

As they provide sanctuary to threatened and endangered animals and plants, they are protected in most areas of the world. In many cases, protecting their numbers and supporting their continued existence is solely dependent on protecting the environments that they inhabit. Lieutenant Governors who combined aesthetic culture with administrative energy are not likely to be very common, and I cannot conceive of any claims upon the administrative and financial resources of the Supreme Government more essentially imperial than this.

Early in , Major H. These initial reports on the preservation of monuments were published by the Governments of India Simla — Calcutta Cole also produced a series of Preliminary Reports on monuments in 22 parts and personally supervised conservation of quite a number of buildings. The monuments of historical or archaeological or state of preservation which ought to be maintained in permanent good repair were placed in category I.